CogWare™ : Advanced Adaptive Courseware from CogBooks
This Adaptive Courseware provides coverage of the structure and function of the human body. Easily configure the modules into a single course or split into an A&P I and II to meet your curricular needs.
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“When they come to class, we have the ability to check where they have questions, so only cover those points instead of going for the whole curriculum.”
Susan Holechek Arizona State University
See Anatomy and Physiology in action
Anatomy and Physiology has been crafted in close collaboration with faculty at Arizona State University. It is based on OpenStax content, and enriched with dozens of video clips and interactive elements. Combined with our Advanced Adaptive Learning methods, it provides a state of the art courseware experience.
CogBooks is an OpenStax Ally. We join OpenStax in the mission to improve access to affordable educational materials by providing additional resources for OpenStax books. OpenStax is committed to providing free, peer-reviewed textbook content and offering multiple options for faculty who need additional resources for their course.
Explore the topics covered
Introduction to the Human Body
This module begins with an overview of anatomy and physiology and a preview of the body regions and functions. It then covers the characteristics of life and how the body works to maintain stable conditions. It introduces a set of standard terms for body structures and for planes and positions in the body that will serve as a foundation for more comprehensive information covered later. It ends with examples of medical imaging used to see inside the living body.
Chemical Level of Organization
This module begins by examining elements and how the structures of atoms, the basic units of matter, determine the characteristics of elements by the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in the atoms. In fact, life cannot exist without many of the elements contribute to chemical reactions, to the transformation of energy, and to electrical activity and muscle contraction.
The cells represent the basic unit of life. These tiny fluid-filled sacs house components responsible for the thousands of biochemical reactions necessary for an organism to grow and survive. In this module, you will learn about the major components and functions of a prototypical, generalized cell and discover some of the different types of cells in the human body.
Tissue Level of Organization
The body contains at least 200 distinct cell types. These cells contain essentially the same internal structures yet they vary enormously in shape and function. The different types of cells are not randomly distributed throughout the body; rather they occur in organized layers, a level of organization referred to as tissue. The variety in shape reflects the many different roles that cells fulfill in your body. The human body starts as a single cell at fertilization. As this fertilized egg divides, it gives rise to trillions of cells, each built from the same blueprint, but organizing into tissues and becoming irreversibly committed to a developmental pathway.
The Integumentary System
The integumentary system refers to the skin and its accessory structures, and it is responsible for much more than simply lending to your outward appearance. The skin protects your inner organs and it is in need of daily care and protection to maintain its health. This module will introduce the structure and functions of the integumentary system, as well as some of the diseases, disorders, and injuries that can affect this system.
Your skeleton is a structure of living tissue that grows, repairs, and renews itself. The bones within it are dynamic and complex organs that serve a number of important functions, including some necessary to maintain homeostasis. While the soft tissue of a once living organism will decay and fall away over time, bone tissue will, under the right conditions, undergo a process of mineralization, effectively turning the bone to stone. A well-preserved fossil skeleton can give us a good sense of the size and shape of an organism, just as your skeleton helps to define your size and shape.
The Axial Skeletal System
The skeletal system forms the rigid internal framework of the body. It consists of the bones, cartilages, and ligaments. Bones support the weight of the body, allow for body movements, and protect internal organs. Each bone of the body serves a particular function, and therefore bones vary in size, shape, and strength based on these functions. The identification of bony landmarks is important during the study of the skeletal system. Bones are also dynamic organs that can modify their strength and thickness in response to changes in muscle strength or body weight.
The Appendicular Skeleton
Your skeleton provides the internal supporting structure of the body. The adult axial skeleton consists of 80 bones that form the head and body trunk. Attached to this are the limbs, whose 126 bones constitute the appendicular skeleton. Because of our upright stance, different functional demands are placed upon the upper and lower limbs. Thus, the bones of the lower limbs are adapted for weight-bearing support and stability, as well as for body locomotion via walking or running. In contrast, our upper limbs are not required for these functions. Instead, our upper limbs are highly mobile and can be utilized for a wide variety of activities.
Joints are the location where bones come together. Many joints allow for movement between the bones. At these joints, the articulating surfaces of the adjacent bones can move smoothly against each other. However, the bones of other joints may be joined to each other by connective tissue or cartilage. These joints are designed for stability and provide for little or no movement. Importantly, joint stability and movement are related to each other. This means that stable joints allow for little or no mobility between the adjacent bones. Conversely, joints that provide the most movement between bones are the least stable. Understanding the relationship between joint structure and function will help to explain why particular types of joints are found in certain areas of the body.
When most people think of muscles, they think of the muscles that are visible just under the skin, particularly of the limbs. These are skeletal muscles, so-named because most of them move the skeleton. But there are two other types of muscle in the body, with distinctly different jobs. Cardiac muscle, found in the heart, is concerned with pumping blood through the circulatory system. Smooth muscle is concerned with various involuntary movements, such as having one’s hair stand on end when cold or frightened, or moving food through the digestive system. This module will examine the structure and function of these three types of muscles.
The Muscular System
The focus of this module is on skeletal muscle organization. In some cases, the muscle is named by its shape, and in other cases, it is named by its location or attachments to the skeleton. This module will describe how skeletal muscles are arranged to accomplish movement, and how other muscles may assist, or be arranged on the skeleton to resist or carry out the opposite movement. The actions of the skeletal muscles will be covered in a regional manner, working from the head down to the toes.
Nervous System and Nervous Tissue
The nervous system is a very complex organ system. One easy way to begin to understand the structure of the nervous system is to start with the large divisions and work through to a more in-depth understanding. The focus of this module is on nervous (neural) tissue, both its structure and its function. But before you learn about that, you will see a big picture of the system.
Anatomy of the Nervous System
The nervous system is responsible for controlling much of the body, both through somatic (voluntary) and autonomic (involuntary) functions. The structures of the nervous system must be described in detail to understand how many of these functions are possible. The place to start this study of the nervous system is the beginning of the individual human life, within the womb. The embryonic development of the nervous system allows for a simple framework on which progressively more complicated structures can be built.
Nervous System Function
The somatic nervous system is traditionally considered a division within the peripheral nervous system. Somatic refers to a functional division, whereas peripheral refers to an anatomic division. The somatic nervous system is responsible for our conscious perception of the environment and for our voluntary responses to that perception by means of skeletal muscles. Peripheral sensory neurons receive input from environmental stimuli, but the neurons that produce motor responses originate in the central nervous system.
The Autonomic Nervous System
The autonomic nervous system is about responding to threats – the fight-or-flight response. Also, there are the responses referred to as “rest and digest.” The heart rate will slow. Breathing will return to normal. The digestive system has a big job to do. Much of the function of the autonomic system is based on the connections within an autonomic, or visceral, reflex.
Certain cells send chemical signals to other cells in the body that influence their behavior. This long-distance intercellular communication, coordination, and control is critical for homeostasis, and it is the fundamental function of the endocrine system.
Single-celled organisms do not need blood. They obtain nutrients directly from and excrete wastes directly into their environment. The human organism cannot do that. Our large, complex bodies need blood to deliver nutrients to and remove wastes from our trillions of cells. The heart pumps blood throughout the body in a network of blood vessels. Together, these three components—blood, heart, and vessels—makes up the cardiovascular system. This module focuses on the medium of transport: blood.
In this module, you will explore the remarkable pump that propels the blood into the vessels. The heart and its contraction develop the pressure that ejects blood into the major vessels: the aorta and pulmonary trunk. From these vessels, the blood is distributed to the remainder of the body.
In this module, you will learn about the vascular part of the cardiovascular system, that is, the vessels that transport blood throughout the body and provide the physical site where gases, nutrients, and other substances are exchanged with body cells. When vessel functioning is reduced, blood-borne substances do not circulate effectively throughout the body. As a result, tissue injury occurs, metabolism is impaired, and the functions of every bodily system are threatened.
Lymphatics and Immunity
This module will identify the components and anatomy of the lymphatic system and discuss the role of the innate immune response against pathogens. Then it will describe the power of the adaptive immune response to cure disease and explain immunological deficiencies and over-reactions of the immune system. The module will conclude with the role of the immune response in transplantation and cancer.
A typical human cannot survive without breathing for more than 3 minutes, and even if you wanted to hold your breath longer, your autonomic nervous system would take control. This is because every cell in the body needs to run the oxidative stages of cellular respiration, the process by which energy is produced in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). For oxidative phosphorylation to occur, oxygen is used as a reactant and carbon dioxide is released as a waste product. The circulatory system transports gases from the lungs to tissues throughout the body and vice versa. A variety of diseases can affect the gas exchange process and result in labored breathing and other difficulties.
The digestive system is continually at work. Consider what happens when you eat an apple. You may be taking a walk or studying or sleeping, having forgotten all about the apple, but your stomach and intestines are busy digesting it and absorbing its vitamins and other nutrients. By the time any waste material is excreted, the body has appropriated all it can use from the apple. This module examines the structure and functions of these organs, and explores the mechanics and chemistry of the digestive processes.
Nutrition and Metabolism
This module will take you through some of the chemical reactions essential to life, the sum of which is referred to as metabolism. The focus of these discussions will be anabolic reactions and catabolic reactions. You will examine the various chemical reactions that are important to sustain life, including why you must have oxygen, how mitochondria transfer energy, and the importance of certain “metabolic” hormones and vitamins.
This module will help you to understand the anatomy of the urinary system and how it enables the physiologic functions critical to homeostasis. It is best to think of the kidney as a regulator of plasma makeup rather than simply a urine producer. “What happens if this does not work?” This question will help you to understand how the urinary system maintains homeostasis and affects all the other systems of the body and the quality of one’s life.
In this module, you will explore the male and female reproductive systems, whose healthy functioning can culminate in the powerful sound of a newborn’s first cry. A child’s birth is proof of the healthy functioning of both her mother’s and father’s reproductive systems. Moreover, her parents’ endocrine systems had to secrete the appropriate regulating hormones to induce the production and release of unique male and female gametes, reproductive cells containing the parents’ genetic material.
Pregnancy and Development
In approximately nine months, a single cell—a fertilized egg—develops into a fully formed infant consisting of trillions of cells with myriad specialized functions. The dramatic changes of fertilization, embryonic development, and fetal development are followed by remarkable adaptations of the newborn to life outside the womb. An offspring’s normal development depends upon the appropriate synthesis of structural and functional proteins. This, in turn, is governed by the genetic material inherited from the parental egg and sperm, as well as environmental factors.
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